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This page is dedicated to Lorraine Lee, MD, who passed away on December 31, 2014 from lung cancer.

Dr. Lee was a friend, a colleague, and an inspiration. Dr. Lee is missed and will never be forgotten. She will always remain in our hearts and minds.

According to UpToDate, an evidence-based, peer-reviewed, physician-authored online resource...

"Lung cancer has reached epidemic proportions in women, and it is now the leading cancer killer in women as well as men. In 2015, lung cancer is expected to take the lives of about 71,600 women in the United States compared with 40,300 deaths due to breast cancer (1) "

"The vast majority of lung cancer cases are attributable to smoking, and smoking prevalence rates in women are still unacceptably high."

"Passive smoking may also be associated with increased risk of lung cancer in never smokers, although the increased risk appears to be predominantly in women with prolonged exposure as an adult (2)"

"A number of occupational and environmental factors are also associated with an increased incidence of lung cancer. Well identified factors include exposure to asbestos, radon, and smoke from wood burning."

According to UpToDate...

"Increased concentrations of radon gas in the home are associated with a small, but statistically significant, increase in the risk of lung cancer."

"Radon, a gaseous decay product of uranium-238 and radium-226, is capable of damaging respiratory epithelium via the emission of alpha particles. Underground uranium miners who were occupationally exposed to radon and its decay products have an increased risk of lung cancer (3), and there is an interactive effect between radon exposure and cigarette smoking [4, 5]."

"Radon is present in soil, rock, and groundwater, and it can accumulate in homes. However, the risk associated with exposure to radon in the home remains uncertain in the face of conflicting data. A 2005 meta-analysis of 13 European case-control studies reported a linear relationship between the amount of radon detected in the home and the risk of developing lung cancer (6). Based upon that meta-analysis, the authors estimated that radon exposure could be responsible for up to 2 percent of lung cancer deaths in Europe (6)."

Here is a link from the National Institutes on Health about Radon:

1) Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2015. CA Cancer J Clin 2015; 65:5)
2) Wang A, Kubo J, Luo J, et al. Active and passive smoking in relation to lung cancer incidence in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study prospective cohort. Ann Oncol 2015; 26:221).
3) Lung cancer risk among German male uranium miners: a cohort study, 1946-1998.
Grosche B, Kreuzer M, Kreisheimer M, Schnelzer M, Tschense A
Br J Cancer. 2006;95(9):1280.
4) Radon and lung cancer.
Samet JM
J Natl Cancer Inst. 1989;81(10):745.
5) Residential radon gas exposure and lung cancer: the Iowa Radon Lung Cancer Study.
Field RW, Steck DJ, Smith BJ, Brus CP, Fisher EL, Neuberger JS, Platz CE, Robinson RA, Woolson RF, Lynch CF
Am J Epidemiol. 2000;151(11):1091.
6)Radon in homes and risk of lung cancer: collaborative analysis of individual data from 13 European case-control studies.
Darby S, Hill D, Auvinen A, Barros-Dios JM, Baysson H, Bochicchio F, Deo H, Falk R, Forastiere F, Hakama M, Heid I, Kreienbrock L, Kreuzer M, Lagarde F, Mäkeläinen I, Muirhead C, Oberaigner W, Pershagen G, Ruano-Ravina A, Ruosteenoja E, Rosario AS, Tirmarche M, Tomásek L, Whitley E, Wichmann HE, Doll R
BMJ. 2005;330(7485):223.



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